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Q21. Which technology was originally developed for routers to handle fragmentation in the path between end points?
E. global synchronization
Q22. A network engineer finds that a core router has crashed without warning. In this situation, which feature can the engineer use to create a crash collection?
A. secure copy protocol
B. core dumps
C. warm reloads
When a router crashes, it is sometimes useful to obtain a full copy of the memory image (called a core
dump) to identify the cause of the crash. Core dumps are generally very useful to your technical support representative.
Four basic ways exist for setting up the router to generate a core dump:
Using Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
Using File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Using remote copy protocol (rcp)
Using a Flash disk Reference: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/internetworking/troubleshooting/guide/
Q23. A network engineer notices that transmission rates of senders of TCP traffic sharply increase and decrease simultaneously during periods of congestion. Which condition causes this?
A. global synchronization
B. tail drop
C. random early detection
D. queue management algorithm
TCP global synchronization in computer networks can happen to TCP/IP flows during periods of
congestion because each sender will reduce their transmission rate at the same time when packet loss
occurs. Routers on the Internet normally have packet queues, to allow them to hold packets when the
network is busy, rather than discarding them. Because routers have limited resources, the size of these
queues is also limited. The simplest technique to limit queue size is known as tail drop. The queue is
allowed to fill to its maximum size, and then any new packets are simply discarded, until there is space in
the queue again. This causes problems when used on TCP/IP routers handling multiple TCP streams,
especially when bursty traffic is present. While the network is stable, the queue is constantly full, and there
are no problems except that the full queue results in high latency. However, the introduction of a sudden
burst of traffic may cause large numbers of established, steady streams to lose packets simultaneously.
Q24. Refer to the exhibit.
Based on this FIB table, which statement is correct?
A. There is no default gateway.
B. The IP address of the router on FastEthernet is 184.108.40.206.
C. The gateway of last resort is 192.168.201.1.
D. The router will listen for all multicast traffic.
The 0.0.0.0/0 route is the default route and is listed as the first CEF entry. Here we see the next hop for this default route lists 192.168.201.1 as the default router (gateway of last resort).
Q25. You have been asked to evaluate how EIGRP is functioning in a customer network.
Traffic from R1 to R61 s Loopback address is load shared between R1-R2-R4-R6 and R1-R3-R5-R6 paths. What is the ratio of traffic over each path?
Q26. A router receives a routing advertisement for the same prefix and subnet from four different routing protocols. Which advertisement is installed in the routing table?
Q27. A company's corporate policy has been updated to require that stateless, 1-to-1, and IPv6 to IPv6 translations at the Internet edge are performed. What is the best solution to ensure compliance with this new policy?
NPTv6 provides a mechanism to translate the private internal organization prefixes to public globally
reachable addresses. The translation mechanism is stateless and provides a 1:1 relationship between the internal addresses and external addresses. The use cases for NPTv6 outlined in the RFC include peering with partner networks, multi homing, and redundancy and load sharing.
Q28. Which encapsulation supports an interface that is configured for an EVN trunk?
D. Frame Relay
Restrictions for EVN
An EVN trunk is allowed on any interface that supports 802.1q encapsulation, such as Fast Ethernet,
Gigabit Ethernet, and port channels.
A single IP infrastructure can be virtualized to provide up to 32 virtual networks end-to-end.
If an EVN trunk is configured on an interface, you cannot configure VRF-Lite on the same interface.
OSPFv3 is not supported; OSPFv2 is supported.
Q29. A network engineer is configuring a solution to allow failover of HSRP nodes during maintenance windows, as an alternative to powering down the active router and letting the network respond accordingly. Which action will allow for manual switching of HSRP nodes?
A. Track the up/down state of a loopback interface and shut down this interface during maintenance.
B. Adjust the HSRP priority without the use of preemption.
C. Disable and enable all active interfaces on the active HSRP node.
D. Enable HSRPv2 under global configuration, which allows for maintenance mode.
The standby track command allows you to specify another interface on the router for the
HSRP process to monitor in order to alter the HSRP priority for a given group. If the line protocol of the
specified interface goes down, the HSRP priority is reduced. This means that another HSRP router with
higher priority can become the active router if that router has standby preempt enabled. Loopback
interfaces can be tracked, so when this interface is shut down the HSRP priority for that router will be
lowered and the other HSRP router will then become the active one. Reference: http://www.cisco.com/c/
Q30. What does the following access list, which is applied on the external interface FastEthernet 1/0 of the perimeter router, accomplish?
router(config)#access-list 101 deny ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 any log
router (config)#access-list 101 deny ip 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 any log
router (config)#access-list 101 deny ip 172.16.0.0 0.15.255.255 any log
router (config)#access-list 101 permit ip any any
router (config)#interface fastEthernet 1/0
router (config-if)#ip access-group 101 in
A. It prevents incoming traffic from IP address ranges 10.0.0.0-10.0.0.255, 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255, 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 and logs any intrusion attempts.
B. It prevents the internal network from being used in spoofed denial of service attacks and logs any exit to the Internet.
C. It filters incoming traffic from private addresses in order to prevent spoofing and logs any intrusion attempts.
D. It prevents private internal addresses to be accessed directly from outside.
The private IP address ranges defined in RFC 1918 are as follows:
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
These IP addresses should never be allowed from external networks into a
corporate network as they would only be able to reach the network from the outside via routing problems or
if the IP addresses were spoofed. This ACL is used to prevent all packets with a spoofed reserved private
source IP address to enter the network. The log keyword also enables logging of this intrusion attempt.